Self Learning Material and Gagne’s nine steps of instruction

Self learning Material  should be worthwhile for learners. We just don’t want to create an Self learning Material  which is not useful for learners. For making our Self learning Material  efficient let’ follow the  Gagne’s (1970) nine steps of Instruction 

1. Gain attention

        Present a problem or a new situation. Use an “interest device” that grabs the learner’s attention. This can be thought of as a teaser — the short segment shown in a TV show right before the opening credits that is designed to keep you watching and listening). The idea is to grab the learners’ attention so that they will watch and listen, while you present the learning point. You can use such devices as:
• Storytelling
• Demonstrations
• Presenting a problem to be solved
• Doing something the wrong way (the instruction would then show how to do it the right way)
• Why it is important

2. Inform learner of Objective

         This allows the learner’s to organize their thoughts and around what they are about to see, hear, and/or do. There is a saying in the training filed to 1) tell them what you’re going to tell them, 2) tell them, and 3) tell them what you told them. This cues them and then provides a review which has proven to be effective. e.g. describe the goal of a lesson, state what the learners will be able to accomplish and how they will be able to use the knowledge.

3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge

This allows the learners to build on their previous knowledge or skills. Although we are capable of having our “creative” minutes, it is much easier to build on what we already know. e.g. remind the learners of prior knowledge relevant to the current lesson, provide the learners with a framework that helps learning and remembering.

4. Present the material

Chunk the information to avoid memory overload. Blend the information to aid in information recall. This allows learners to receive feedback on individualized tasks, thereby correcting isolated problems rather than having little idea of where the root of the learning challenge lies. Bloom’s Taxonomy and Learning Strategies( Try to get some information on these aspects) can be used to help sequence the lesson by helping you chunk them into levels of difficulty.

5. Provide guidance for learning

This is not the presentation of content, but are instructions on how to learn. This is normally simpler and easier than the subject matter or content. It uses a different channel or media to avoid mixing it with the subject matter. The rate of learning increases because learners are less likely to lose time or become frustrated by basing performance on incorrect facts or poorly understood concepts.

6. Elicit performance

Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge

7. Provide feedback

Show correctness of the learner’s response, analyze learner’s behavior. This can be a test, quiz, or verbal comments. The feedback needs to be specific, not, “you are doing a good job” Tell them “why” they are doing a good job or provide specific guidance.

8. Assess performance.

Test to determine if the lesson has been learned. Can also give general progress information

9. Enhance retention and transfer

Inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, review the lesson.


In short the Self Learning Material  prepared should catch  Attention of the learner . It should be based on the Objective and Prior knowledge of the Learner. Presentation of the Self Learning Material should be effective and it should be able to do the following functions.

  •   Guidance for learning
  •   Elicit performance
  •   Provide feedback.
  •   Assess performance

If we properly apply ADDIE model by keeping the Nine steps given above we will be able to create  the Self Learning Material which will be meaningful to the learners.

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